We all know that there are seven natural/primary Notes in Indian Music system:
S R G M P D N
Apart from the seven notes there are five other notes which are the flat and sharps of these natural ones.
So, please remember, there are 12 notes (7+5=12) in total.
Let’s talk about these Five Notes
We can also consider them the cousins of the seven natural ones. We also call them Komal or Teevr.
When we lower the notes half step from their exact location, the notes turn to be called as Komal or flat. Indian Scenario, there are Four notes RE GA DHA NI, which are lowered/flatted/komal from their locations.
They are symbolized as underline the note: R (r Komal)
Similarly, what are Teevr swaras? Teevr means Raised or sharp. When a note is raised half step from their natural positions, they are teevr swaras. There is only one note MA, which go higher. The symbol is ‘a vertical line on the note’.
Therefore, four and one sharp in totality become five cousins of the natural ones.
These five Swaras which have moved from their places are also called Vikrita Swar. Vikrita means not natural.
Now you are wondering what about SA and PA! Don’t they move? Yes, you’re right … they do not move from their exact places. They are immovable or ACHAL swaras (achal means jo chalet nahi.)
Thus, seven natural notes + 5 vikrita notes adds up to make 12 notes from sa to SA
S r R g G M m P d D n N SA = 12